Lung cancer is the type of cancer which is characterized by the uncontrollable growth of the cell in the lung. This growth of cell can spread further through a process called metastasis into nearby tissue hence affecting other parts of the body. The most common cause of lung cancer is smoke and tobacco which is believed to cause 90% of lung cancers. Even passive smoking is dangerous. Other possible reasons for lung cancer are gases, asbestos, air pollution, fibers, familial predisposition, high levels of arsenic in drinking water, genetic factors and several other lung diseases.
Signs and Symptoms: + –
Early stages of lung cancer may not show any sign and symptoms but later stage symptoms may vary depending upon the type of cancer, and may include:
- Chest pain
- Frequent cough
- Coughing up blood
- Loss of appetite
- Shortness of breath
- Facial paralysis
- Eyelid drooping
- Change in the voice
- Difficulty faced in swallowing
- Swelling on the face
General diagnostic tests suggested: + –
There are wide range of diagnostic tests and procedures to diagnose lung cancer. These may include:
- X-ray of chest: This test is the most common diagnostic step. Chest X-ray reveals the suspicious areas in the lung and contributes in lung cancer diagnosis. Nodule or tumors can be easily detected by this test.
- CT scan: This test is carried out when X-ray of chest is done and it fails to identify the exact abnormality or the location of the tumor. This test is considered to be more sensitive than X-ray and have more accurate results.
- MRI: This test is done for specific details of the tumor, especially in terms of tumor location. This technique uses the magnetism, radio waves and a computer to give body structure images. There are no known side effects of this test up till now.
- Spiral CT scan: This test is used sometimes to screen lung cancer but it requires special type of CT scanner. This test is generally used to detect small lung cancer.
- PET scanning: This test is used to measure the function and metabolic activity of the cancerous tissue. This test shows the growth of the tumor and the particular type of cell involved in the cancer.
- Needle biopsy: This test is useful in that case where the cancerous tumor is peripherally located and is difficult to locate by other diagnostic tests.
- Bone scans: Bone scan is done to know whether a lung cancer has metastasized to the bones or not by creating images of bones on computer.
- Bronchoscopy: This test reveals the areas of the tumor and then they are sampled for diagnosis.
- Surgical procedure: when none of the diagnostic tests attain successful result, than surgical procedures are being carried out to obtain tumor tissue for diagnosis. This may include thoracotomy or mediastinoscopy.
Test available at Oncquest:+ –
Following lung cancer diagnostic test is being carried out at Oncquest.
Test: CYFRA 21.1 (LUNG CANCER MARKER), Serum
The technique used: Electro – Chemiluminescence
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special Instruction: Give brief clinical history on test requisition form.
Run days at section: Saturday if received before 12:00 p.m.
Reported on: 5th Working Day by 7:00 p.m