Cardiac Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are related to heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins). Factors like age, gender, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, family history, obesity, lack of physical activity, and air pollution increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Other diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes also increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most common types of cardiovascular diseases are:

  • Atherosclerosis: It’s the condition in which plaque builds up in the wall of arteries making it harder for the blood to flow through them. If plaque continues to build up it can lead to blocking of the blood flow in turn causing a heart attack or stroke. Plaque is formed mainly due to the deposition of fat and cholesterol and is common in patients with high cholesterol.
  • Heart Failure or Congestive Heart Failure (CHF): Heart failure means that the heart is not pumping the blood as well as it should. The heart keeps working but the body’s need for blood and oxygen for normal metabolism is not being met.
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD): It is the condition of hardening or clogging of arteries that provide essential nutrients and oxygen to heart through blood. The hardening or clogging of arteries occurs due to deposition of plaque on the inner walls of arteries leading to abnormal artery tone and function.
  • Arrhythmia or Cardiac dysrhythmia: It is a large group of conditions in which there is abnormal electric activity in heart resulting in irregular heart beat. The heart beat may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia).
  • Stroke or Ischemic Stroke: It happens when a blood vessel that feeds the brain gets blocked usually from a blood clot. The brain cells start dying due to improper or no blood supply and the person becomes incapable of performing various functions like walking or talking. A Hemorrhagic Stroke occurs when a blood vessel within brain bursts because of uncontrollable hypertension.
  • Congenital Heart Disease: It is a type of defect that occurs in one or more structures of heart or blood vessel before birth.

Signs and Symptoms of Cardiac Diseases: +

The signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of heart disease, however the most common signs and symptoms are:

  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Pain or discomfort in jaws, neck and back
  • Weakness or undue fatigue
  • Light headedness
  • Nausea
  • Cold sweat
  • Pain or discomfort in arms and shoulders
  • Shortness of breath

General Diagnostic Tests for Cardiac Diseases:+

The general diagnostic tests also depend on the type of heart disease, but the most likely are as follows:

  • Chest X-Ray
  • Exercise Stress Test or Stress Test
  • Tilt Table Test
  • Echocardiogram
  • Cardiac Catheterization or Coronary Angiogram
  • Electrophysiology Test
  • CT Heart Scan (Computer Tomography Heart Scan)
  • Myocardial Biopsy
  • Heart MRI (Heart Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  • Pericardiocentesis

 

Test available at Oncquest:+

Following is the test carried out at Oncquest for cardiac disease diagnosis.
After a heart attack resulting in death of heart muscle (myocardial necrosis) cardiac proteins called troponins are released in to circulation. Cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) is a preferred biomarkers used to detect cardiac injury. As such, diagnostic strategies for the effective management of patients with chest pain involve checking troponin levels.

1. Test: TROPONIN – I, Serum

The technique used: Card Test (Chromatography)
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: 3rd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

2. Test: TROPONIN – T, Whole Blood

Test Code: 1892BL
Cost Involved: Rs. 1200
The technique used: Immunochromatography
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Whole Blood.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: 3rd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

3. Test: CHOLESTEROL, Fluid

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 2 ml (1 ml. Minimum) Miscellaneous Body Fluids  (Ascitic, Pleural, Peritoneal, Pericardial, Synovial etc.).
Special instruction: Specify type of fluid on test requisition form and sample container.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

4. Test: CHOLESTEROL, HDL, DIRECT, Serum

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

5. Test: CHOLESTEROL, LDL, DIRECT, Serum

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

6. Test: CHOLESTEROL, TOTAL, Serum

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: SameDay by 7:00 p.m

7. Test: LIPID PROFILE, BASIC, Serum Includes: *Cholesterol *Triglycerides  *HDL,  Cholesterol  *LDL , Cholesterol *VLDL, cholesterol  Calculated * Cholesterol : HDL Cholesterol Ratio

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 3 ml. (1.5ml.Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same day by 7:00 p.m

8. Test: LIPID PROFILE, EXTENDED 1, Serum Includes *Lipoprotein (a) *Apolipoproteins A1, B & A1 : B Ratio * Cholesterol *Triglycerides *HDL,  Cholesterol  *LDL , Direct * VLDL, cholesterol *Cholesterol:HDL Cholesterol Ratio *Chylomicrons

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 3 ml. (1.5ml.Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: 4th Working Day by 7:00 p.m

9. Test: HYPERTENSION ASSESSMENT PROFILE LIPID Profile (Basic)  – Cholesterol (Total), Triglycerides, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol : HDL Cholesterol Ratio

Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Plasma from 1 Sodium Fluoride (Grey top Tube)
Special instruction: 12 -14 Hrs. (Overnight) fasting is preferred. Specify age & sex on test requisition form.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m

Reported on : Same Day by 7:00 p.m