Breast Cancer

An abnormal growth of breast cells form a tumor known as “Breast Cancer”. Breast cancer usually begins in the milk ducts or lobules cells which are responsible for the production of the milk. Although, breast cancer is mostly found in women, but men can also get it. It is more common among the women over the age of 40 years. People with a family history of breast cancer are at higher risk. Being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy, having early onset of menstruation cycle or late onset of menopause, late conceiving babies, high fat diet, etc are the other risk factors of breast cancer. With routine check ups one may diagnose breast cancer in the early stages.

Signs and Symptoms: +

Commonly the first sign of breast cancer is a lump in the breast . Other symptoms may include,

  • Unusual (Bloody) discharge from the nipple
  • Change in shape and skin of breast
  • A new area of thickened tissue in the breast resulting in hard lump
  • Persistent menstrual cycle
  • Change in color of the breast
  • Redness of skin on nipple or breast or even near underarm
  • Swelling in the armpit
  • Nipple turns inwards
  • Skin irritation
  • Nipple or breast pain

General diagnostic tests suggested:+

Breast cancer diagnosis can be done via below mention diagnostic tests,

  • Self examination: the proactive way of keeping oneself away from breast cancer is self examination and care for oneself. Although some lumps are too small to get noticed but one should always keep a close check to detect breast cancer signs and symptoms.
  • Clinical examination: The breast examination can be done by a professional heathcare provider after observing either initial symptom of cancer or as a regular check up.
  • Breast ultrasound: This test is carried out to diagnose that the lump is cancerous cyst or just a solid tissue mass.
  • Breast MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging is done to detect the exact position and growth of the lump.
  • Mammogram: This special type of X-ray is done to observe the changes in breast tissue and abdominal growth.
  • Breast biopsy: In this test a physician removes few cells from the lump to examine if they are cancerous.
  • Ductal lavage: This test checks cells from the milk ducts for the precancerous cell detection.

 

Test available at Oncquest:+

Following are the tests carried out at Oncquest for breast cancer diagnosis,

1. Test: CA 15.3 (BREAST CANCER MARKER),  Serum

The technique used: ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: Give brief clinical history on test requisition form
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: 3rd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

2. Test: MALIGNANCY (CANCER) ASSESSMENT (FEMALE) Includes CA15.3 (Breast Cancer Marker)

The technique used: ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbent Assay
Sample required: 4 ml. (3 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: 2nd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

3. Test: HERstatus Her2/neu Gene Amplification for Breast Cancer

The technique used: FISH
Sample required: Formalin fixed tissue/Representative Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Specify brief clinical details on TRF.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 5 – 7 Working Day

4. Test: Breast Cancer Prognosis Panel DNA Ploidy and S – phase estimation EGFR mRNA overexpression HER2/neu gene amplification

The technique used: Flowcytometry & Real Time RT- PCR (Quantitative)
Sample required: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Must be accompanied by an H & E slide of the  same block.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 7th Working Day if received before 1500 Hrs

5. Test: neuquest HER2/neu Gene Amplificatio

The technique used: Real Time RT- PCR (Quantitative)
Sample required: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block. Must be accompanied by an H & E slide of the  same block
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 7th Working Day if received before 1500 Hrs

6. Test: CA 15.3 (Metastatic Breast Cancer Marker)

The technique used: Immunohistochemistry
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature by courier
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 4th Working day of receipt of paraffin blocks, if received in section before 1300 Hrs.

7. Test: Breast Prognosis Basic panel ER PR

The technique used: IHC
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 4th Working day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 hrs; Add another day for specimen received after cut off time. 5th Working day for formalin fixed specimens.

8. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 1A ER PR DNA Ploidy / S – Phase

The technique used: IHC & Flowcytometry
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 4th Working day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 hrs; Add another day for specimen received after cut off time. 5th Working day for formalin fixed specimens.

9. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 1B ER PR HER2/neu

The technique used: IHC
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: 4th Working day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 hrs; Add another day for specimen received after cut off time. 5th Working day for formalin fixed specimens.

10. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 2A ER PR HER2/neu Gene Amplification DNA Ploidy / S – Phase

The technique used: IHC & Real Time RT-PCR (Quant) & Flowcytometry
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Mon./Wed./Friday
Reported on: 7th day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 hrs; Add a day for tissue specimen.

11. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 2B ER PR HER2/neu DNA Ploidy / S – Phase

The technique used: IHC & Flowcytometry
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Mon./Wed./Friday
Reported on: 6th day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 hrs; Add a day
for tissue specimen

12. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 3A ER P53 PR Cathepsin D

The technique used: IHC
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Mon./Wed./Friday
Reported on: IHC: 4th day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 Hrs; Real Time RT – PCR (Quant.): Add a day for Tissue specimen.

13. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 4A ER PR    EGFR mRNA overexpression HER2/neu Gene Amplification

The technique used: IHC & Real Time RT-PCR(Quant)
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Everyday
Reported on: IHC: 4th day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 Hrs; Real Time RT – PCR (Quant.): Add a day for Tissue specimen.

14. Test: Breast Prognosis Profile # 5A ER & PR CA-15.3 (Metastatic Marker)

The technique used: IHC
Sample required: Representative Tissue placed in Formalin/Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue block sent at room temperature.
Run days at section: Everyday

Reported on: IHC: 4th day of Receipt of Paraffin Block if received before 1300 Hrs; Real Time RT – PCR (Quant.): Add a day for Tissue specimen.