Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which blood does not contain the required number of healthy red blood cells or required amount of Hemoglobin (Hb). Hemoglobin is the protein found in red blood cells whose main function is to carry oxygen via blood from lungs to various tissues and organs of the body. Deficiency of hemoglobin leads to lack of oxygen (Hypoxia) in body. The patient with anemia is referred as anemic. Men are considered anemic if they have hemoglobin level less than 13.5gm/100ml of blood and women are considered anemic if they have hemoglobin level less than 12.0gm/100ml of blood. Basically there are three causes of anemia: excessive blood loss (Hemorrhage), excessive red blood cells destruction (Hemolysis), and deficiency of red blood cells production (Hematopoiesis). There are various types of anemia on the basis of above three causes:

  • Anemia due to deficiency of vitamin B12:
  • Anemia due to deficiency of folic acid.
  • Anemia due to deficiency of iron.
  • Anemia of chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases can reduce the ability of body to produce red blood cells. Chronic diseases like liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, etc can lead to anemia too.
  • Hemolytic anemia: This condition occurs when bone marrow is not able to replace the destroyed red blood cells. Immune Hemolytic Anemia is a condition in which our immune system considers our red blood cells as foreign substances and starts producing antibodies which destroys our own red blood cells.
  • Idiopathic aplastic anemia: In this condition bone marrow fails to produce normal blood cells.
  • Megaloblastic anemia: In this condition red blood cells larger than the normal size are produced.
  • Pernicious anemia: In this condition less number of red blood cells is produced than required in the body. It is caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B12.
  • Sickle cell anemia: In this condition abnormal shaped (sickle or crescent) shaped red blood cells are produced.
  • Thalassemia: In this condition body produces an abnormal type of hemoglobin which causes excessive destruction of red blood cells resulting in anemia.

Signs and Symptoms of Anemia +

Symptoms depends on the type of anemia, however the most common symptoms include:
Mild anemia:

  • Grumpy feeling
  • Tiredness or weakness
  • Headache
  • Problem in concentrating or thinking

       Worsening of anemia:

  • White part of eyes turns blue
  • Brittle nails
  • Light headedness
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue

General diagnostic tests include +

  • Physical examination: the physician performs physician examination to find out the heart murmur, blood pressure (low), skin color (pale), and heart rate (rapid).
  • Blood test: blood tests are done to  find out the levels of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid and other essential vitamins
  • Red blood count: this test is done to calculate the total number of red blood cells in the blood.
  • Hemoglobin level: This test is done to find out the amount of hemoglobin present in blood.
  • Reticulocyte count: This test is done to find out the percentage of slightly immature red blood cells (reticulocytes) in the blood.

 

Test available at Oncquest +

1. Test: VITAMIN B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN), Serum

The technique used: Chemiluminescence Immunoassay
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Special instruction: Fasting is preferred.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

2. Test: ANAEMIA ASSESSMENT PROFILE Includes *Complete Blood Count (CBC) * Serum Iron *TIBC *%age Transferrin saturation *Ferritin *Vitamin B12 *Serum Folate/Folic Acid

The technique used: Automated Cell Coulter & CLIA + Immunoturbibometry
Sample required: 3 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

3. Test: FOLATE/FOLIC ACID, RBC Includes Serum Folate.

The technique used: Chemiluminescence Immunoassay
Sample required: 2 ml.(1 ml. Minimum) each  Whole Blood .
Run days at section: Daily if received before 12:00 p.m
Reported on: 3rd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

4. Test: FOLATE/FOLIC ACID, Serum

The technique used: Chemiluminescence Immunoassay
Sample required: 2 ml (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 12:00 p.m
Reported on: 3rd Working Day by 7:00 p.m

5 Test: TOTAL IRON BINDING  CAPACITY (TIBC), Serum

The technique used: Spectrophotometry
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

6. Test: IRON STUDIES (BASIC), Serum Includes *Iron *TIBC *%age Transferrin saturation

The technique used: Spectrophotometry + Immunoturbidimetry
Sample required: 2 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

7. Test: IRON STUDIES (COMPREHENSIVE), Serum Includes *Iron *TIBC *%age Transferrin saturation *Ferritin

The technique used: Spectrophotometry & Chemiluminescence Immunoassay
Sample required: 3 ml. (1 ml. Minimum) Serum.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 2:00 p.m
Reported on: Same Day by 7:00 p.m

8. Test: THALASSEMIA PROFILE Includes *Haemogram/ Full blood Examination * Iron *TIBC *%age Transferrin saturation * Ferritin *Hb Electrophoresis/Hb HPLC

The technique used: Spectrophotometry & CLIA ; HPLC
Sample required: 4 ml. (2 ml. Minimum) Whole Blood.
Run days at section: Daily if received before 12:00 p.m
Reported on: 4th working Day by 7:00 p.m

9. Test: Bone Marrow, Iron Stain

The technique used: Prussian Blue Reaction
Sample required: Submit Minimum 4 smears of bone marrow aspirate AND 2
peripheral blood smears / smears from a trephine biopsy. Fix smears in 95% ethanol for 30 minutes and air dry and send in a slide mailer
Run days at section: Everyday

Reported on: 3rd Working day if received before 1200 Hrs.